INTRO: Profiling can prolong rail life, improve ride dynamics and cut maintenance costs if is done carefully; incorrect use of grinding can all too easily have the opposite effects to those intendedBYLINE: Dr Allan M Zarembski PEPresidentZeta-Tech Associates IncMODERN RAIL grinding techniques use carefully applied grinding patterns to profile the rail head, and thus determine where and how wheel/rail contact will occur. Computer control has made possible this fine tuning of wheel/rail contact geometry, which reduces damage to the rail head and thus extends in-service life.Concurrent with the development of rail profile grinding techniques has been a move away from traditional defect elimination grinding – often referred to as ’rail rectification’ – towards rail ’maintenance’ or ’preventive’ grinding. This more recent approach does not wait for surface defects to develop, but rather attempts to eliminate their development before they emerge on the rail head1.This move from defect elimination to maintenance and profile control grinding has resulted in an expansion of the use of rail maintenance grinding techniques, increasing the service life of the rail and therefore reducing its life cycle cost per million gross tonne-km carried.It has also led to improvements in wheel/rail dynamic interaction in both the vertical and horizontal plane, not only extending rail life still further but also improving ride quality, with consequent benefit to the track structure, rolling stock and freight or passengers it is carrying. In addition, lineside residents suffer less noise from passing trains.Grinding has been used to address a range of problems experienced by railways carrying heavy axleload freight and high speed passengers, as well as light rail vehicles. A corresponding range of grinding applications has evolved to deal with problems peculiar to these disparate functions.It must be emphasised that any solutions – in particular profile grinding – are problem specific. The proper grinding profile approach must be used to address each specific class of rail problems, and these are considered in turn.Surface defectsGrinding was introduced originally in the 1930s to control defects such as corrugation on the top of the head. Such defects initiate vertical wheel/rail dynamic activity; correcting them reduces noise, vibration and vertical impact forces.Although this type of grinding has traditionally been remedial, taking place after the defects appear, the subsequent use of preventive maintenance grinding led to better control of these defects and the consequent reduction of their adverse impact on operations and costs. Planned grinding catches these surface defects early in their formation cycle while they are still shallow, thus reducing the dynamic loading damage caused to the rail and track structure.In some cases, the development of surface defects such as the low-rail corrugations often found on freight railroads has been significantly retarded, or even completely forestalled by the use of profile grinding.In modern practice, grinding to control surface defects is frequently combined with profile grinding. Additional benefits have also been obtained by combining profile grinding with the use of improved rail steels (cleaner, higher strength) and/or improved lubrication.Fatigue defectsControlling and maintaining the cross-sectional shape of the rail head, a process known as profile grinding, has been used to limit surface fatigue defects. These include spalling on the gauge corner of the high rail, centre cracking of the low rail in curves, and sub-surface fatigue defects such as gauge corner shelling of the high rail. These classes of defects are commonly associated with heavy axleloads and represent the area of benefit most frequently reported by North American freight railroads2,3.A major objective of profile grinding is relieving high contact stresses at the gauge corner of the high rail associated with discrete single point contact in a severe flanging condition, such as occurs on sharp curves. Fig 1 shows the zone of high contact stress on the gauge corner of the high rail, and associated metal removal during gauge corner grinding. These high stresses can induce fatigue problems including cracking and spalling. Grinding shifts wheel/rail contact away from this corner to a more central location on the rail head.In sharp curves, a second contact point between the flange of the wheel and the gauge face of the rail can occur, generating two-point contact between wheel and rail. Dividing the wheel/rail contact site reduces contact stresses and can result in a decrease in both surface fatigue spalling and sub-surface shelling.This gauge corner grinding approach removes the surface fatigue-damaged rail steel, relocating the (interior) point of maximum rail stress, before fatigue damage can initiate a failure defect. This is particularly important for well lubricated track or premium (high hardness) rail steels where the rate of wear is substantially reduced.However, recent research suggests that changing from one-point to two-point contact can result in a deterioration in bogie curving performance4, with a corresponding increase in the wheel/rail flanging forces. This can increase gauge face wear if no other action is taken. Therefore, this type of gauge corner profile grinding should be used primarily in areas where fatigue, and not wear, is the dominant rail failure mode.Controlling rail wearProfile grinding is also used to improve the steering of conventional three-piece freight bogies, and thus reduce gauge face wear5. This application – initially introduced by the heavy-haul mining railways in Western Australia during the late 1970s – resulted in the development of a set of asymmetric rail head profiles. Separate profiles are used for high and low rails, and for straight track – especially where hunting wear occurs.By making use of the difference between wheel radii due to tread conicity, the bogie can be induced to steer itself around the curve, ideally without flange contact. Fig 2 shows how, after grinding the gauge side of the low rail and the field side of the high rail, the outer wheel is forced to ride on the larger radius portion of its tread while the inner wheel rides on a smaller radius.This has the potential for eliminating flanging on curves of less than 600 m radius, based on 1:20 wheel conicity. This has been the experience in Australia, where increased wear life of the order of 70% to 80% has been reported1.Recent research by the AAR suggests that improved curving can likewise be achieved through the use of a conformal, single-point contact between the wheel and the gauge corner of the rail4. This likewise supports the notion that no single grinding profile can address all of the major rail problem areas. It is necessary to define the specific problem, or class of problems, to be addressed prior to the selection of a grinding profile and initiation of profile grinding.Grinding versus lubricationGrinding is best applied as part of an overall rail maintenance programme which includes effective lubrication, the use of premium rail and defect testing. This is particularly true for the severe rail degradation environment found on moderate and heavy curvature track under heavy freight loading. The objective is to obtain the maximum life from rail in its first position before being downgraded to secondary track.On poorly lubricated track, maximum rail degradation generally takes the form of severe wear on the high rail of the curve, with head wear being the primary factor driving rail replacement. In well lubricated track, rail wear is dramatically reduced. This allows fatigue damage to accumulate because the fatigued steel is not worn away, so surface and sub-surface defects have time to develop, notably at the gauge corner of the high rail6.This relationship between rail life and lubrication is illustrated in Fig 3 which represents the results of controlled testing at the FAST test track at Pueblo, Colorado. In an unlubricated environment, the rail in this curve required replacement after 70 to 90 million gross tonnes (MGT) of heavy axleload traffic. When the rail was fully lubricated the wear rate was reduced by a factor of 10 such that the projected wear life of the rail, under the same traffic conditions, became 900MGT.However, before this extended wear life could be realised, the rail began to experience significant fatigue defects, with the 5% defect level (which corresponds to the point where many railroads replace rails due to excessive fatigue defects) being reached after approximately 160MGT, well before the rail’s potential wear life of 900MGT.If the rail is to approach more closely its wear life potential, cumulative rail fatigue must be controlled. Profile grinding can extend fatigue life by reducing maximum wheel/rail contact stresses and removing fatigue-damaged metal prior to the development of defects. In fact, test data suggests that profile grinding has the potential to extend the fatigue life of curve rail into the 300 to 400MGT range7. This would represent a further doubling of rail life, with major economic benefits. Profile grinding benefitsMaintenance grinding has been shown to increase rail life. This life extension – often observed in conjunction with improvements in metallurgy, steel cleanliness and lubrication – is difficult to isolate. There is no doubt, however, that grinding has been shown to generate measurable extensions of rail life and improvements in rail performance, as well as secondary benefits associated with reduced dynamic wheel/rail loading.While the effect of rail grinding is often masked by concurrent improvements, several railroads have been able to document significant increases in rail life which they have attributed, in very large part, to rail profile grinding. Such was the case on Burlington Northern, where improvements in average rail life of 50% to over 300% were reported; grinding was credited as a key factor3.Canadian National also reported significant life increases, in some cases in the order of 500%, due to a combination of increased lubrication, improved rail steels, and rail profile grinding. CN further reported that if proper grinding was not performed on an ongoing basis, rail could lose 95% of its potential service life2.In the case of CP Rail, the effect of grinding is clearly illustrated in Fig 4. This shows a dramatic reduction in new rail laid during the decade to 1995 which correlates well with the increase in grinding. While other factors such as improved lubrication and metallurgy have contributed, CP also credits rail grinding as a key factor in this dramatic extension of rail service life8.Profile grinding issuesWhile producing demonstrable benefits in terms of extended rail life and reduced damage to track structure and rolling stock, profile grinding does change the wheel/rail contact environment with the potential for undesirable behaviour if not properly addressed.As already noted, moving from one-point to two-point contact can adversely affect curving performance and increase flanging forces4. This in turn increases gauge face wear as well as the potential for rail overturning on curves – of particular concern in an environment where lubrication is absent, or the high rail is lubricated and the low rail is dry which generates high lateral loads.But two-point grinding is most effective in controlling rail fatigue, and the latter may be more important than increased wear. This condition, illustrated in Fig 5, correlates fatigue defects (detail fractures) and rail grinding (pass miles) on BN during 1984-95. Between 1983 and 1988, BN performed profile grinding using a basic two-point contact configuration and thus kept the number of detail fractures low. In 1988-90 BN changed to a lighter conformal grinding pattern with a resulting surge in detail fracture defects as well as a rash of broken rail derailments which cost in excess of $6·5m 9. In 1990-91 BN switched back to more aggressive two-point grinding and again was rewarded by a reduction in detail fracture type fatigue defects.Lessons learnedRail grinding must be used carefully and intelligently. Properly used, it can result in substantial extension of rail life, reduction in track maintenance costs, and improvement in the dynamics of wheel/rail interaction. Improperly used, it has the potential for increasing lateral wheel/rail forces, increasing rail wear, and even causing the low rail on curves to overturn.Grinding must therefore be used with a proper understanding of its benefits and limitations. When used effectively, it is a valuable tool for the control of rail degradation, and for the reduction of overall track maintenance costs. oCAPTION: The Pandrol Jackson RMS-3 belongs to the latest generation of North American high-speed rail grinding machinesCAPTION: Left: Fig 1. Profile grinding of the high rail in a curve to avoid gauge-corner spallingCAPTION: Fig 2. Asymmetric profile grinding increases the rolling radius on the high rail and reduces the radius on the low rail, improving bogie curving performanceCAPTION: Centre: A simple hand-held gauge is used to check the profile of the rail head after grindingCAPTION: Fig 3. Rail failure distribution relative to tonnage carried on AAR’s FAST test trackCAPTION: Fig 4. Correlation between rail replacement and grinding recorded by CP RailCAPTION: Fig 5. BN recorded a surge in detail fractures caused by fatigue when conformal grinding was introducedReferences:1 Zarembski AM. ’The Evolution and Application of Rail Profile Grinding’, Bulletin of the American Railway Engineering Association No 718, December 1988.2 Worth AW, Hornaday JR Jr, and Richards PR. ’Prolonging Rail Life Through Grinding’, Proceedings of the Third International Heavy Haul Railways Conference, Vancouver, October 1986.3 Glavin W. ’Rail Grinding The BN Experience’, Bulletin of the American Railway Engineering Association No 722, October 1989. 4 Hannafious J. ’Rail Grinding at FAST’, Proceeding of the First Annual AAR Research Review, Vol I: FAST/HAL Test Summaries, Pueblo, November 1995.5 Lamson ST and Longson BH. ’Development of Rail Profile Grinding at Hamersley Iron’, Proceedings of the Second International Heavy Haul Railways Conference, Colorado Springs, 1982.6 Steele RK. ’Rail Lubrication: The Relationship of Wear and Fatigue’, Transportation Research Board, Railroad Maintenance Workshop, Amherst, June 1985. 7 Zarembski AM. ’The Relationship Between Rail Grinding and Rail Lubrication’, Second International Symposium on Wheel/Rail Lubrication, Memphis, June 1987.8 Wilson A. ’Developing and Managing Rail Maintenance Programs’, ARM Rail Maintenance Seminar, Chicago April 1996.9 Tornga G. ’Conformal and Non-conformal Grinding Experiences’, ARM Rail Maintenance Seminar, Chicago April 1996.L’utilisation intelligente du meulage des railsCombiner la maintenance du profil avec le meulage pour éviter la dégradation de la surface de roulement, peut prolonger la vie des rails, réduire la maintenance des voies et améliorer la qualité de roulement. Mais il faut utiliser la bonne technique dans chaque cas. Un meulage mal appliqué risque de réduire la vie des rails et d’augmenter les forces latérales entre les roues et les rails au point o
PRESIDENT Roger Harper, Executives and Members of the Demerara Cricket Club (DCC) would like to congratulate the club’s young sensation, Ashmead Nedd, who recently earned his maiden first-class call-up.Nedd, following the 2020-2021 West Indies Professional Players Draft for the Colonial Medical Insurance Super50 Cup and the West Indies Championship, was snapped up by the Leeward Island Hurricanes for the upcoming season.The club, which has always facilitated the young man’s development, is keen to continue doing so even as he will be resident abroad.Needless to say, this opportunity with the Hurricanes set-up will land him in good stead moving forward and we, the members of DCC, urge him to grasp it with both hands and use it as a stepping-stone to earn opportunities at the highest level.“We have no doubt that he will continue to do well since the 19-year-old, who is a left-arm spinner by trade, was one of the leading performers for West Indies at the ICC Under-19 World Cup in South Africa earlier this year. He was also part of West Indies Emerging Players unit that won the Colonial Medical Insurance Super50 Cup last November. Before then, Nedd had been one of the flagship players of the club.Like so many others, he came through the junior ranks, ironically via a programme, designed and implemented by his father and coach, Gavin Nedd. He went on to play, captain and acquit himself well for Guyana at all the age group levels and so his transition to the first-class level comes as no surprise to us.Once again, DCC would like to congratulate Nedd and wish him well as he strives to make his family, club, and Guyana proud.”
COUNCIL BLUFFS — Democratic presidential candidate Elizabeth Warren is calling on Congress to take action on gun reform in the wake of two deadly shootings last weekend.“We have a gun crisis in this country,” Warren said Wednesday.Warren spoke to a crowd of more than a thousand in Council Bluffs Wednesday night. Warren said Republicans in congress have been under the control of the National Rifle Association for too long.“We’re going to get rid of the filibuster and we’re going to pass some serious gun legislation in this country,” Warren said, to cheers.According to Warren, the NRA has spent nearly five-million dollars each year in lobbying efforts has crippled any substantial reform in the nation’s gun laws.“The Republicans are held by the throat by the NRA,” Warren said. “Enough is enough.”Warren continues her swing through western Iowa today and tomorrow with stops in Harlan, Jefferson, Fort Dodge, Humboldt and Clear Lake. She is scheduled to speak at the Iowa State Fair Saturday.
By Ryan Gallagher | LONG BRANCH – Volunteers hit the sand in some New Jersey coastal town on Saturday, not to build castles or get a tan, but to help the coastal environment by planting beach grass by hand.In Long Branch, the non-profit Surfer’s Environmental Alliance (SEA) hosted an event at the Brighton Beach entrance, in conjunction with the City of Long Branch and its Environmental Commission.The task was to plant 10,000 clones of American Cape beach grass in random patterns 8 inches deep, 18 inches apart. By the 11 a.m. start, the boardwalk was teeming with volunteers who wanted to help plant the stalks.“It all helps stabilize the sand and you know, it’s the right thing to do here,” said lifetime surfer and SEA executive director, Richard Lee of Long Branch. “The more grass in the lower area and the bigger it is, the better it will do to prevent sand and water from coming over the boardwalk,” said Lee.When mature, the leafy beach grass can grow to a height of 2 or 3 feet, and its leaves may become rolled or folded. Its strong underground stems spread underneath the sand and can give rise to many new plants. The native plant enhances the natural beauty of the beach. “See, look how nice that looks?” said Lee. The surfing community wanted to give back, he explained.“The city of Long Branch, in my opinion is the most surf-friendly town on the Jersey Shore,” said Macioch.In Long Branch on Saturday, Alex Krenkel was among many who pitched in to plant dune grass on the beach. Native beach grass helps stabilize moving sand and is effective against beach erosion.Danna Kaywood and her husband David were digging and planting on the beach in their jeans and flannel shirts. Danna, the program and special event coordinator for the city, wanted to get involved. “It had come to my attention about doing this, so I helped with advertising and getting it out,” said Danna.Shawna O’Shemmey of Middletown was motivated to do what she could after seeing the Instagram post about the project. She and her husband, Hugh, brought their two boys. “We love to help out any way we can with the environment and beach preservation,” she said.Before it was over, a band of Monmouth University student-surfers arrived. They apologized for being tardy; they had been surfing all morning.“We showed up fashionably late, but we’re getting right on it and it feels good,” said Alex Krenkel of Ocean Township, a surf team member.The surfers kept the mood light with laughter, but they were serious about giving back.“It is important that we take care of our backyard here at Monmouth University, show some support for the community and show that we as MU students are here to make this place great again,” said student-surfer, Paul Kelly.As the event wound down, the bundles of beach grass disappeared and, soon after, so did the crowd. Event directors and community members expressed hope the beach grass roots would run vigorously into the sand and knit together to stabilize the moving sand for the future.Soon the environmentalists would embark on their next project. “We are also going to be starting a campaign called ‘Please Leave Only Your Footprints.’ That’ll be on the garbage cans,” said SEA director Lee. “It’s a subliminal message to tell people that if you bring garbage please just put it in the cans or take it off the beach.”This article was first published in the March 30-April 6, 2017 print edition of The Two River Times. ￼Monmouth University student surfers Tyler Sankey (foreground), Huascar Holguin, Zack Karvelas and Connor Perzely get to work during the Long Branch beach grass planting.There was a bit of swell in the water and a balmy breeze blowing as surfers, college students, scouts and beach lovers worked the beach with digging tools and bundles of beach grass, being careful not to trample on newly planted stalks.SEA’s Chris Macioch was impressed by the community spirit. The group has helped organize similar events in Sea Bright. “But, for a pure SEA beach grass planting I’d say that this is definitely our best turnout,” he said.
* * *Subscribe to the Mercury News and East Bay Times for $40 a year and receive a free Warriors championship coffee table book* * *LOS ANGELES – Steve Kerr’s job description involves being the Warriors’ coach. Or “a manager,” as Kerr prefers since it involves more about handling personality than writing X’s and O’s. But he also took a few seconds out of his busy schedule to outline the sports rundown for producers, radio hosts and columnists.The topic: how to evaluate DeMarcus Cousins’ …
(CLICK HERE, if you are unable to view this photo gallery on your mobile device.)SANTA CLARA — Cornerback Jason Verrett said his “body feels good,” and that could make his signing Thursday with the 49ers a very good thing for a suspect secondary.Verrett’s tenure with the Chargers was waylaid by shoulder and knee injuries, and just when he was ready to return to form last season, he tore an Achilles at the start of training camp. “A lot of dark moments dealing with a lot of the …
Join us Friday at 7:30 p.m. for live news and analysis when the Warriors take on the Cleveland Cavaliers at Oracle in the second of a back-to-back game.The Warriors (54-24) take a magic number of 2 into the game, which is the second-to-last regular season home game at Oracle. The Cavaliers (19-60) are a far cry from the team the Warriors faced in the last four NBA Finals as they’ve responded to LeBron James’ exit with the second-worst record in the Eastern Conference.Friday will …
Brand South Africa had a strong and vibrant presence at the 40th Annual Meeting of the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland, in late January, with a particular focus on the 2010 Fifa World Cup. In this gallery we bring you the highlights.Click on a thumbnail for a larger image.For high-resolution images, visit the World Economic Forum online. Television cameraman films proceedings duringthe session Rethinking Africa’s Growth Strategy, in which three panellists were South African, at the Congress Centre at the Annual Meeting 2010 of the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland, on Thursday 28 January.Photo: Remy Steinegger, World Economic ForumDelegates listen during the session Rethinking Africa’s Growth Strategy on Thursday 28 January.Photo: Remy Steinegger, World Economic Forum The panel during the session Rethinking Africa’s Growth Strategy at the Congress Centre at the Annual Meeting 2010 of the World EconomicForum in Davos, Switzerland, on Thursday 28 January.Photo: Remy Steinegger, World Economic ForumRussell Loubser, CEO of South Africa’s JSE Securities Exchange, speaks at the session Rethinking Africa’s Growth Strategy on Thursday 28 January.Photo: Remy Steinegger, World Economic Forum Maria Ramos, group chief executive of South Africa’s Absa Bank, speaks at the session Rethinking Africa’s Growth Strategy on Thursday28 January.Photo: Remy Steinegger, World Economic ForumThe panel of the session Rethinking Africa’s Growth Strategy, held on Thursday 28 January: from left, Maria Ramos, group chief executive, Absa Bank, South Africa; Tanzanian President Jakaya Kikwete; Donald Kaberuka of Tanzania, president of the African Development Bank; Li Ruogu, chairman and president, Export-Import Bank of China; Kuseni Dlamini, CEO of Old Mutual South Africa; and Russell Loubser, CEO of South Africa’s JSE Securities Exchange.Photo: Remy Steinegger, World Economic Forum Davos Kickoff for the 2010 Fifa World Cup in South Africa in the Congress Centre in Davos on Saturday 30 January.Photo: Andy Mettler, World Economic Forum Zakumi, the official 2010 World Cup mascot, mingles with the crowd at Davos Kickoff for the 2010 Fifa World Cup in South Africa onSaturday 30 January.Photo: Monika Flueckiger, World Economic ForumA journalist wearing a Brand South Africa beanie at work in the Media Centre on Saturday 30 January.Photo: Michael Wuertenberg, World Economic Forum Showing off ball skills before Davos Kickofffor the 2010 Fifa World Cup in South Africa on Saturday 30 January.Photo: Andy Mettler, World Economic ForumBrigitte Pfenninger of Swiss International Airlines holds a South African flag at Davos Kickoff for the 2010 Fifa World Cup in South Africa on Saturday 30 January.Photo: Remy Steinegger, World Economic Forum Blowing the vuvuzela trumpet at Davos Kickofffor the 2010 Fifa World Cup in South Africa on Saturday 30 January.Photo: Remy Steinegger, World Economic ForumA supporter holds a copy of John Carlin’s book on the 1994 Rugby World Cup, held in South Africa, at Davos Kickoff for the 2010 Fifa World Cup in South Africa on Saturday 30 January.Photo: Remy Steinegger, World Economic Forum Vuvuzela trumpets on display at Davos Kickofffor the 2010 Fifa World Cup in South Africa on Saturday 30 January.Photo: Remy Steinegger, World Economic ForumKlaus Schwab, executive chair of the World Economic Forum, during the session Davos Kickoff for the 2010 Fifa World Cup in South Africa on Saturday 30 January.Photo: Remy Steinegger, World Economic Forum South African Minister in the Presidency Trevor Manuel during the session Davos Kickoff for the 2010 Fifa World Cup in South Africa on Saturday 30 January.Photo: Remy Steinegger, World Economic ForumZakumi, the official 2010 World Cup mascot, during the session Davos Kickoff for the 2010 Fifa World Cup in South Africa on Saturday 30 January.Photo: Remy Steinegger, World Economic ForumBRAND SOUTH AFRICA IN DAVOSPART 1PART 2 PART 3THE CAMPAIGN More galleries: For more great South African photography, including the Proteas jetting off to the ICC World Cup, grassroots football, Nelson Mandela meeting Bafana Bafana, high-rise office buildings in Sandton, and South Africa’s new ape-man fossil – visit the Media Club South Africa gallery page.
Melissa Javan12 August 2016Tebogo Suping of Kagiso in Gauteng is one of 50 young people who are featuredin the book Activate! Change Drivers that was recently launched inSouth Africa.“It’s our turn to change the world,” says the book’s first page. On another page,a woman is holding a placard that reads: “Our country. Our voice. Youth can changethings.”The book gives insight to what the members of the network Activate! SouthAfrica are doing across the country. The 50 young people are members of thenetwork. These members are called the Activators.Suping tries to improve the lives of school children in her community. She hasestablished a business called the Blaq Apple Communications and Events. Everyyear she and her team run camps for matric learners during the school holidays atthe local community centre.They help the learners with study support and personal mentoring. Throughoutthe process the learners must do communitywork to teach them to be sociallyaware, reads the book. They have also helped the learners with practical knowledgelike getting ready for university studies, applying for a bank account or an identitybook and bursary applications.At the end of last year, six of the learners who were helped by Suping and herteam were in the top two of their schools. The six obtained 33 distinctions betweenthem, including maths and science.“There is time to make money and there is time to makechange” – Tebogo Suping @ActivateZA @Ke_Geeman #Activating2030— Mr. PR (@collensthe) July 29,2016Benefits of the networkThe aim of the Activators in the network is to build the youth’s identity, createprojects, share ideas and collaborate with each other to drive opportunities.The book also says that in 2015 the Activate Community DevelopmentCertificate Course was piloted and applied to the South African QualificationAuthority to accredit the course. The aim is to offer an accredited qualification incommunity development at NQF level 5.This is to help the committed young people (the Activators) get a qualificationthat will be recognised in their communities and in society.Chris Meintjes is the chief executive officer of the network Activate!He believes that by June 2030, the future of South Africa will look good if theActivators are still busy with their community work. (Image: Activate!Leadership)The aim of the bookChris Meintjes, chief executive officer of the network, says in the foreword ofthe book: “The purpose of this book is to inspire all who read it. There’s not a wholelot of good news around, yet when you look at the challenges young people face,and see how the Activators are working together to create opportunities, youbecome aware that the future is filled with hope.”The network founded in 2011.Meintjes explains that each Activator has committed to a journey of service tothe public. “They work from within their own homes, communities and beyond.Many of them run their own initiatives and some volunteer in support of others.”The book launchThe book launch took place on 29 July 2016 in Johannesburg.At the launch, Meintjes says it has been a humbling experience working withthe Activators. “The past five years has been an incredible journey. The book is astep in theright direction for us.“It celebrates what is possible in the hands of a network of people. You[Activators] are the reason that there is rekindled hearts in this country.”He says the network started to build opportunities and create connections.“They [the Activators] give me hope. I see the value in the work they’re doing. Isee a future – it looks promising, that future – when I am working with thesepeople.”Meintjes says in 2011 when the network started, they worked with 20 to 30year olds. “Their energy is amazing.”He says if you flip over the book, you’ll see the possibilities of what the futurewill look like if these Activators continue with their good work in South Africa.”Would you like to use this article in your publication or on your website?See Using SouthAfrica.info material
Almost exactly a year ago, Google shocked the industry by buying Motorola for $12.5 billion. Everyone agreed that Google coveted Motorola’s 17,000 patents. But there was a niggling question: What would happen to the rest of Motorola? We now have a pretty good idea. In a filing with the Securities and Exchange Commission, Google announced that it will lay off about 4,000 of Motorola’s 20,000 employees. Google will also close or consolidate about one-third of Motorola’s 90 facilities. The shutdown will cost Google $275 million in the third quarter of 2012.Motorola Mobility, which was split from Motorola Solutions prior to the Google acquisition, has lost money in 14 of the last 16 quarters, going back well before Google announced the acquisition Aug. 14, 2011. In the SEC filing, Google said it will simplify Motorola’s mobile-product portfolio, “shifting the emphasis from feature phones to more innovative and profitable devices.”A report from The New York Times says that in addition to the layoffs, Motorola will streamline its supply chain, cutting by 50% the different kinds of smartphone components — such as processors and sensors — that are used in its product lines. Google has also laid off 40% of Motorola’s vice presidents and replaced many of them with executives of Google’s choosing.According to the report, the product team at Motorola will now be run more like a startup, leaner and more efficient, with an emphasis on innovation. The product team at Motorola is led by Regina Dugan, formerly of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, better known as DARPA, the technology research wing of the Pentagon that birthed the Internet.Motorola has been slow in the smartphone market despite the fact that, in 2009, it had some success with the original Droid, bringing the Android operating system to pop culture. The company’s other smartphone product lines have been commercial duds, from its Atrix and Razr to its Xoom and Xyboard tablets. Motorola did achieve some critical success with several of its devices in recent years, such as its dual-core Atrix smartphone, which could be plugged into a laptop-like “dock,” that won Best of Show at the Consumer Electronics Show in 2011. Motorola has fallen so far behind other manufacturers that it didn’t rank in the top five of smartphone shipments in the second quarter of 2012 according to research firm IDC. As recently as the middle of 2011, Motorola battled with Research In Motion (which has also fallen out of the top five) and HTC for fourth place behind Samsung and Apple and Nokia.HTC, despite its own recent struggles competing at the top of the market, now ranks fourth behind Nokia with Chinese manufacturer ZTE ranking fifth (its first appearance in the top five). When feature phones are added to the equation, Motorola still does not rank among the top five cellphone makers. It is eclipsed by Samsung, Nokia, Apple, ZTE and LG. Google appears to be remaking Motorola rather than burying it. It is getting Motorola out of the feature-phone market where margins are very low and it is already underperforming. Motorola likely will be tasked with creating a series of high-end smartphones to challenge the iPhone and Samsung Galaxy series.“I don’t think this is the end of [Motorola]. But I do expect a scaled-back presence for Moto with fewer models, and a heavy concentration on the higher end of the market. Just like Nokia and RIM, Moto is being forced to concentrate on its core growth areas, and not try to compete for business at the low end where it can’t win,” said industry analyst Jack Gold with J. Gold Associates. HTC has made a similar decision, cutting the variety of devices it builds, and focusing on its One series, with multiple screen sizes and price points. Even Google’s financial and technological might not be enough to make Motorola a leader. Apple and Samsung take 90% of the profit in smartphones home with them. If that trend continues in the future, it may not matter what the likes of Motorola, HTC, Nokia or RIM do to their product lines. Both Nokia and RIM have announced heavy layoffs and restructuring this year to reposition themselves. It is now Motorola’s turn to reinvent its business. Related Posts Role of Mobile App Analytics In-App Engagement Why IoT Apps are Eating Device Interfaces dan rowinski What it Takes to Build a Highly Secure FinTech … Tags:#Android#Google#mobile The Rise and Rise of Mobile Payment Technology