7:17 Now playing: Watch this: Game of Thrones Season 8 Episode 4: The good, the bad… Game of Thrones HBO 187 Photos Tags Share your voice What about the representation of women in front of the camera? As a viewer, there have been moments that have been very uncomfortable to watch for me as a woman.Riley: I’m only there to service the story, to serve the directors and the showrunners. Women throughout history have not always had an easy time, and I have no problem whatsoever with showing that in all of its ugliness. The showrunners always have known there would be characters like Cersei and Daenerys that would rise. I’ve always had faith in them, and my job as a production designer is not really to ask.So you know how the show ends?Riley: I think I know how it ends, but I haven’t seen episode 6. I first received an outline of season 8 a year and a half ago, so I had a secret for a really long time. It’ll be fascinating. The great thing is people have no idea how far the show still has to go. 0 TV and Movies See all the Game of Thrones season 8 photos Post a comment If you think watching Game of Thrones is a grueling emotional experience, try working on it. For Production Designer Deborah Riley, season 8’s Battle of Winterfell was just one of the tough assignments in her time on the show. “To re-create death and violence like that over a long period of time … it’s wearing,” she says. “It really saps your soul.”Despite being “traumatized and exhausted” by the scale of the job, Riley describes Game of Thrones as a “fantastic” experience she’s sad to leave behind. As production designer, it’s her role to define the look of the show through sets and props. both physical and created with CGI. Having learned the ropes working on The Matrix and Moulin Rouge, the Australian has led the production design of the dragon drama since its fourth season, winning four Emmy Awards, a Bafta and several Art Directors Guild gongs along the way. Production Designer Deborah Riley and Art Director Paul Ghirardani in September 2018 with their Emmy for Outstanding Production Design for a Narrative Period or Fantasy Program (one hour or more). Alberto E. Rodriguez/Getty Images As the eighth and final season builds to a climax, viewers of season 8’s third episode The Long Night complained they couldn’t see much of the dramatic Battle of Winterfell. Riley defends the creative decision of cinematographer Fabian Wagner. “We always received lots of criticism before about Game of Thrones being dark,” Riley told me over the phone. “I actually thought it added an extra layer — the fact you couldn’t see everything made it all the more terrifying. To me, it enhanced rather than detracted.”Here’s a lightly edited transcript of my chat with Riley. Q: You’ve been the production designer of seasons 4 to 8 in Game of Thrones. What was it like to inherit the world of Westeros rather than starting from scratch?Riley: I always thought I was incredibly lucky to get the job on Game of Thrones. It never bothered me at all that this show had three seasons beforehand. Frankly, I didn’t have enough experience at that point in time to start a whole show myself. And the show kept growing throughout the years, so I was able to go and establish my own [designs].The Meereen audience chamber as seen on season 5 of Game of Thrones. HBO What locations and sets are you most proud of?Riley: I was always very proud of the Meereen audience chamber in season 4, purely because that was the first major set we built for season 4. There was a lot of pressure, a lot of people looking at me to see what I would do. So I felt that once that audience chamber was established, hopefully people felt it was in a sure pair of hands.Deborah Riley on the set of Game of Thrones. Macall Polay/HBO What were the biggest challenges?Riley: The frozen lake of season 7, episode 6, Beyond The Wall. That was an absolutely astonishing thing we had to create. A certain part was shot on location in Iceland, but also because of the large amount of stunts and visual effects we had to bring the scene back to Belfast. So we created a complete frozen landscape in a quarry up in the hillside of Belfast. It was extraordinary to see an entire quarry concreted and turned into a frozen lake. It was so convincing. It was months and months of work in really punishing weather, but the result was absolutely fantastic.How hard is it to keep the secrets of Game of Thrones, and how much do your family and friends nag you for information?Riley: If you worked on the show, we care for it so much that we just don’t want to spoil it for anybody. Really the only time I’ve struggled [was] when I finished season 8. I was quite traumatized, I was so exhausted, and there were so many things that I wanted to talk about but I couldn’t. How was your experience in the show?Riley: It was absolutely fantastic, the five and a half years that I worked on the show. But at the same time, the story was told. So there was also a resignation to it … and I was incredibly proud as well. Such a mixture of feelings, but the main one I remember was just absolute exhaustion. The mandala left by the Night King that we saw in episode 1 of season 8. Helen Sloan/HBO Does it help a little bit that now you can finally start talking about it? The show hasn’t ended yet, but at least we’ve seen some of the episodes.Riley: Yeah, well, I mean I’ve been able to show photographs, because I’ve never shared with my friends or family photographs from July 2017 to July 2018. So, for instance, the mandala that the Night King left, I have pictures of us putting it up on that wall. And it’s such a macabre thing.Can you talk about some of the other women who worked behind the scenes?Riley: There are a lot of women behind the camera. The executive producer, Bernie Caulfield, was more or less head of the show. She’s an extraordinary personality. A lot of the production office were also women. Michele Clapton, the costume designer. There were women in all of the departments. In Australia, the shooting crews would probably have more women. In construction, you would see more women. Certainly, in the art department, we had a lot of women [in Game of Thrones] in the drawing room and in set decoration. It’s a great place to be — it’s also a punishing place to be. There’s a lot of long hours and often in dreadful conditions.
November will begin with the Cardinals in Beantown for a matchup with Boston College Nov. 1 before heading to Syracuse on Nov. 3 for a match. UofL stays on the road for a tilt with Miami (Nov. 8) and Florida State (Nov. 10) in the Sunshine State. Story Links The University of Louisville volleyball team has released its 2019 schedule and the Cardinals will play 19 matches against regionally ranked opponents, 15 of which were also nationally ranked with 11 matchups coming against 2018 NCAA participants. ACC play opens up the weekend of Sept. 27 when the Cardinals begin a home stand of four matches, beginning with NC State (Sept. 27), UNC (Sept. 29), Georgia Tech (Oct. 4) and Clemson (Oct. 6). Coming down the homestretch, the Cards will host Syracuse (Nov. 15), Miami (Nov. 22) and Miami (Nov. 24). Louisville will complete the regular season slate at Pitt on Nov. 27. Louisville will wrap up non-conference play with matches on the road against two of its oldest rivals, at Kentucky on Sept. 20 and at Cincinnati on Sept. 22. UofL will begin the season by hosting two tournaments in the newly named L&N Federal Credit Union Arena. The Cardinal Classic will feature NCAA participants Dayton and Florida as well as SEC opponent Texas A&M. The Fleur de Lis Tournament invites Arizona State, intrastate rival Western Kentucky and Tennessee Tech. Back home again in the L&N Federal Credit Union Arena, the Cardinals will host Virginia (Oct. 25) and last year’s ACC Champion Pittsburgh (Oct. 27) to wrap up a busy month of October. Print Friendly Version The Cardinals then hit the road for the Lipscomb Tournament which will host Louisville, Purdue and Xavier the weekend of Sept. 13. UofL faces Purdue on Sept. 13 and Lipscomb on Saturday, Sept. 14. The Cardinals made their 27th appearance in the NCAA Tournament this season led by ACC Setter of the Year Wilma Rivera and 2017 Defensive Player of the Year Molly Sauer, who were both seniors. Louisville will be led by returning AVCA All-East Region and First Team All ACC Melanie McHenry along with returning starters Piper Roe, Emily Scott, and Mia Stander. Redshirt freshman Aiko Jones, transfer setter Tori Dilfer and transfer middle Anna Stevenson will help fill gaps left by departing seniors as the Cards await the arrival of their No. 16-ranked recruiting class this summer. Then the Cardinals flip the script and play four straight matches on the road starting with Duke, one of six nationally ranked ACC teams from 2018 on Oct. 11 followed by Wake Forest (Oct. 13). UofL will travel for a midweek tilt in South Bend against the Irish of Notre Dame, another of the ACC’s nationally ranked teams. On Oct. 20, UofL will head to Blacksburg for a match versus the Hokies of Virginia Tech.
All individuals, whether they have religious or secular upbringings, have a chance of defecting. Rowthorn explained that the rates of defection from religious to secular and from secular to religious preferences depend on time and place.“Amongst Christian Churches in Europe and North America, defection rates are higher than conversion rates,” he said. “In some cases, such as the Amish, these losses are greatly outweighed by their very high fertility. However, for mainstream Churches, such as the Catholics or Anglicans, the birth rate is not high enough on its own to offset defections and they rely on immigration to maintain their numbers. In certain other parts of the world, such as East Asia, mainstream Christian Churches are growing through conversion.”Rowthorn’s model shows that, even when the religious defection rate is high, the overall high fertility rate of religious people will cause the religiosity allele to eventually predominate the global society. The model shows that the wide gap in fertility rates could have a significant genetic effect in just a few generations. The model predicts that the religious fraction of the population will eventually stabilize at less than 100%, and there will remain a possibly large percentage of secular individuals. But nearly all of the secular population will still carry the religious allele, since high defection rates will spread the religious allele to secular society when defectors have children with a secular partner. Overall, nearly all of the population will have a genetic predisposition toward religion, although some or many of these individuals will lead secular lives, Rowthorn concluded.“The rate at which religious people abandon their faith affects the eventual share of the population who are religious,” Rowthorn said. “However, it does not alter the conclusion of the article that the religiosity allele will eventually take over. If the defection rate is high, there will be lots of children who are brought up as religious and carry the religiosity allele, but who give up their faith. Such people will carry the religiosity allele into the secular population with them. Many of their descendents will also carry this allele and be secular. In this case, the high fertility group is constantly sending migrants into the low-fertility secular population. Such migrations will simultaneously boost the size of the secular population and transform its genetic composition.”Rowthorn acknowledges that he can only speculate on how a genetic predisposition toward religion may manifest itself in a secular context. Previous research has suggested that a genetic predisposition toward religion is tied to a variety of characteristics such as conservatism, obedience to authority, and the inclination to follow rituals. In this instance of evolution, it’s possible that these characteristics may become widespread not for their own fitness but by hitching a ride with a high-fitness cultural practice. Study: Religious belief declines in Britain Rowthorn has developed a model that shows that the genetic components that predispose a person toward religion are currently “hitchhiking” on the back of the religious cultural practice of high fertility rates. Even if some of the people who are born to religious parents defect from religion and become secular, the religious genes they carry (which encompass other personality traits, such as obedience and conservativism) will still spread throughout society, according to the model’s numerical simulations.“Provided the fertility of religious people remains on average higher than that of secular people, the genes that predispose people towards religion will spread,” Rowthorn told PhysOrg.com. “The bigger the fertility differential between religious and secular people, the faster this genetic transformation will occur. This does not mean that everyone will become religious. Genes are not destiny. Many people who are genetically predisposed towards religion may in fact lead secular lives because of the cultural influences they have been exposed to.”The model’s assumptions are based on data from previous research. Studies have shown that, even controlling for income and education, people who are more religious have more children, on average, than people who are secular (defined here as having a religious indifference). According to the World Values Survey for 82 countries, adults attending religious services more than once per week averaged 2.5 children, those attending once per month averaged 2.01 children, and those never attending averaged 1.67 children. The more orthodox the religious sect, the higher the fertility rate, with sects such as the Amish, the Hutterites, and Haredi having up to four times as many children as the secular average. Studies have found that the high fertility rates stem from cultural and social influences by religious organizations rather than biological factors.But while fertility is determined by culture, an individual’s predisposition toward religion is likely to be influenced by genetics, in addition to their upbringing. In the model, Rowthorn uses a “religiosity gene” to represent the various genetic factors that combine to genetically predispose a person toward religion, whether remaining religious from youth or converting to religion from a secular upbringing. On the flip side, the nonreligiosity allele of this “gene” makes a person more likely to remain or become secular. If both parents have the religiosity allele, their children are also more likely to have the religiosity allele than if one or both parents did not have it. However, children born to religious parents may have the nonreligiosity allele, while children born to secular parents may have the religiosity allele. Having the religiosity allele does not make a person religious, but it makes a person more likely to have characteristics that make them religiously inclined; the converse is also true. Citation: Model predicts ‘religiosity gene’ will dominate society (2011, January 28) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-01-religiosity-gene-dominate-society.html Explore further Copyright 2010 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. More information: Robert Rowthorn. “Religion, fertility and genes: a dual inheritance model.” Proceedings of the Royal Society B. DOI:10.1098/rspb.2010.2504 A variety of religious symbols. A new study has investigated how the differing fertility rates between religious and secular individuals might affect the genetic evolution of society overall. Image credit: Wikimedia Commons. (PhysOrg.com) — In the past 20 years, the Amish population in the US has doubled, increasing from 123,000 in 1991 to 249,000 in 2010. The huge growth stems almost entirely from the religious culture’s high fertility rate, which is about 6 children per woman, on average. At this rate, the Amish population will reach 7 million by 2100 and 44 million by 2150. On the other hand, the growth may not continue if future generations of Amish choose to defect from the religion and if secular influences reduce the birth rate. In a new study, Robert Rowthorn, emeritus professor of economics at Cambridge University, has looked at the broader picture underlying this particular example: how will the high fertility rates of religious people throughout the world affect the future of human genetic evolution, and therefore the biological makeup of society? This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.