Compartmentalization in Multifamily Buildings

first_imgAt some point in our lives, we’ve all been in an apartment building or a hotel and smelled cigarette smoke or cooking odors from a neighbor. Or maybe you’ve heard an argument (or other things) going on next door that you didn’t want to hear. Let’s face it: living in apartment buildings is not without annoyances.Fortunately, there are simple ways to alleviate some of these problems: by sealing up the gaps in the walls between apartments. This is “compartmentalization.”Many people still have the mistaken impression that air leakage is good for health. But when they say that “Yeah, sealing is good, but you don’t want to make it too tight,” what they are really saying is, “Don’t forget about air quality.” I agree — air quality is important. Moreover, research has shown the link between airtightness and ventilation performance. When I worked at Steven Winter Associates (SWA) in Connecticut, we found that ventilation systems work better with tighter apartments.In this article, I’m going to lay out some of the arguments for compartmentalizing buildings. In an upcoming article, I’ll describe inexpensive ways to test a building to save energy, improve fire safety, and improve health, and I’ll discuss a proposed change to the International Energy Conservation Code. Old Mrs. McGillicuddyAirflow patterns in most buildings are much more dependent on the weather than any of us would like to admit. Old buildings with no ventilation system at all are subject to this cruel reality even more than new buildings with ventilation systems, because people in old buildings use “double-hung thermostats” (a.k.a. windows) to get fresh air and control the heat.Andy Padian, the guy who hired me at SWA, used to tell the story of old Mrs. McGillicuddy, who lives on the first floor of an equally old apartment building in New York City. One night during a snowstorm, this building is toasty warm, even overheated, which is common for New York buildings. That’s just fine with old Mrs. McGillicuddy, who’s always cold. But the residents on the top floor are so hot they are about to pass out, so they open the windows for relief. This is opening the flood gates for the chimney effect. Relief does come to the top floor — not through the open window, but through the gap around the hallway door. Air rushes up from the lower floors and floods into the top-floor apartments, cooling them off. Much better.But poor Mrs. McGillicuddy on the first floor begins to suffer because the makeup air for that upward draft comes through the gaps and cracks in her walls and windows. She gets cold, rings up the building superintendent, and screams at him to turn up the heat, gosh darn it. He begrudgingly obliges, not wanting to feel her wrath any more tonight, and the whole building gets hotter. Thus, the cycle continues and the heating bill skyrockets.Two things are at play here: one is heating system imbalance, which we all know is bad. The other is that apartments are far too well-connected to each other and the common spaces. Occupants are unpredictableI have to admit that the data that we got from our research was sometimes messy. The hard thing about doing research in occupied buildings is that they contain occupants; and occupants, no matter how much you instruct them to not touch your sensors or open the windows, will do whatever they please.But to me this was instructive. We had a hard time figuring out which way the air was flowing in the building because people were always opening doors and windows and messing it up! A true working ventilation system in a multi-unit building must be able to deal with this. Herein lies the lesson.Let them open the windows! Let them control the heat! If they are too hot, give them a thermostat in every room to shut off the heat. If they need fresh air, let them open the window. If you want to save energy, put a sensor on the window that reduces the heat when the window is open.There is quite a lot of wisdom in unitizing HVAC systems and controls. Ductless minisplit systems are a great example of this. In fact, many experts believe that individual electric systems will be the way of the future in a post-fossil-fuel world. But you can’t really count apartments as unitized until you seal them from each other. RELATED ARTICLES Designing a Good Ventilation SystemPassive Air Inlets Usually Don’t WorkThe Stack EffectResidential Commissioning Should Occupants Have Control of Their Home Ventilation System?Occupant Behavior Makes a DifferenceVentilation Rates and Human HealthHow Much Fresh Air Does Your Home Need?Makeup Air for Range Hoods Suppose you live in an apartment building and your neighbor is a chain smoker. Being very considerate of others in the apartment, your neighbor opens the window with every cigarette and smokes next to it, blowing the smoke outside. The problem is, because your building is built with constant exhaust ventilation, when your neighbor opens the window, the forces described by building science conspire to distribute that smoke around the building.When your smoking neighbor opens the window, the pressure in that apartment drops to virtually zero with respect to outside — the open window allows air to move in and out freely. But your apartment and the rest of the building is still under negative pressure because your windows are closed and the exhaust vents are still sucking. What happens to the neighbor’s smoke?It gets pulled into the hallway, and into the other neighbors’ apartments, including yours, because the slight negative draw caused by the exhaust system in your apartment pulls it there. (See Image #1 at the top of the page.)We know this happens because we can look at the pressure monitoring data from different buildings. In that building, on that floor, during that weather, with the windows in that particular configuration, air flows out of the neighbor’s apartment, into the hallway, and into yours. But why is it that you can only smell the smoke on some days? Because all those variables mentioned — windows, doors, HVAC operation, temperature, wind — are all changing all the time, and only sometimes do they line up to deliver that gift from your neighbor.There are some options to help ensure that makeup air comes from intended sources, like passive vents in the exterior envelope. For example, trickle vents are small slotted vents often mounted in a window frame; they are common in the U.K., and some U.S. builders use them as a low-cost solution to providing makeup air. Other devices include small vents in through-wall HVAC systems and even engineered holes straight through the wall. Stack effect and ventilationBuilding scientists have been talking for years about “stack effect” — the tendency of temperature differences between the inside and outside of tall buildings to create pressure differences and drive air infiltration. It’s one of the first concepts covered in building science courses, and it’s been in ASHRAE Fundamentals for a long time. We’ve heard over and over that dividing larger buildings into smaller airtight blocks by compartmentalizing cuts down on stack effect. The idea is that if you cut the vertical distance over which the driving forces of stack effect can act, then you can reduce the rate of infiltration. The pressures in the tight apartment fluctuate with operation of fans, opening of trickle vents, etc., while the pressures in the leaky apartment (see the graph below) can hardly be manipulated. In other words, the tight apartment allows you to gain supremacy over the pressure so that you can control where the air comes and goes. The leaky apartment? It’s as unpredictable as the wind. But many benefits of compartmentalization don’t have anything to do with saving energy, at least not directly. Take the example of an apartment building. Speaking generally, well-sealed apartments inhibit the passage of secondhand smoke, smells, and other pollutants; reduce sound transmission; and impede the passage of pests and vermin between neighbors. They are also safer in a fire, because they help prevent the passage of hot gases that make fires spread and smoke that suffocates people.In addition, compartmentalized apartments make buildings more resilient to changes in building operation. During research that I was involved in at SWA, studying buildings in New York City, we found many benefits of compartmentalized apartments, and a lot of the benefits had to do with controlling indoor air quality. In short, the better sealed your apartment is, the better it functions in real life.Pressures in real buildings change all the time in response to changes in temperature, opening and closing windows and doors, changes in HVAC operation, and changes in wind and direction. With these changes in pressure come changes in how air flows into and out of apartments.The most common ventilation strategy in multifamily buildings — constant exhaust from apartments, either centrally or individually — often doesn’t work like it’s supposed to. One reason is that central ventilation systems are often very poorly designed and constructed. Not enough thought goes into designing them, and often the registers are simply way bigger than they need to be. And not enough care goes into building ducts. They’re often extremely leaky, and most building codes don’t require testing of low-pressure exhaust ductwork. Both these issues lead to pressure loss, very poor balance, and sometimes vastly different airflow from apartments.Exhaust-only ventilation may work just fine in single-family homes. The exhaust fans put the home under negative pressure, and as exhaust is pulled out, fresh makeup air comes in through gaps and cracks in the exterior envelope (ideally not from the attic or basement) and balances the flow. But in apartment buildings, SWA found that makeup air for exhaust-only systems is often more likely to come from your neighbor who smokes or from the hallway than it is from “clean” outside air. Furthermore, those flows may be reversed by any of the changes to the building pressure regime noted above.Even supplying makeup air straight from identified sources faces difficulties. Supply air direct from a rooftop ERV/HRV must have well-designed, well-sealed ductwork, and it probably should have self-balancing dampers (for example, CAR damper by American Aldes). In-unit supply fans like the through-wall heat exchanger Lunos, and small fans fitted to fan-coil units or PTACs, must be powerful enough to overcome stack forces in all parts of the building at all times. In laboratory conditions, these fans may move the specified amount of air, but if you place them throughout a real building under winter conditions, with high positive pressure at the top of a building and negative pressure at the bottom, each fan must compete with a different pressure regime. The result is that some of the apartments get more fresh air than others. Sean Maxwell formerly worked as a senior energy consultant at Steven Winter Associates in Norwalk, Connecticut. He now lives in Australia. The unwanted gift from your neighborBy doing long-term monitoring of pressures in apartments, SWA was able to visualize which way the air moves in a building over time with several different ventilation systems. We also put sensors on windows and doors to know when they were opened. And in one building, we could see a major change in the pressure regime of a group of apartments when someone opened a window.I often use the following example to illustrate what happens. All these strategies rely on two usually false premises: that the vents are the largest hole in the apartment envelope, and therefore the most likely path for makeup air; and that the apartment is reliably under negative pressure. Unfortunately, this is almost never true, at least not for all parts of the building at the same time. Passive vents, which ultimately are simply expensive holes in the wall, are often dwarfed by the size and number of other possible leakage pathways in the apartment, most obviously gaps and cracks around the door to the hallway. Check Martin Holladay’s article that nicely sums up the research that we did (“Passive Air Inlets Usually Don’t Work”).In order to make sure that makeup air comes from only where we want it to in an exhaust-only building, SWA research found that many apartments would probably need to be sealed to less than 0.1 CFM50 per square foot of enclosure (0.51 L/s @50Pa per m2). For a one-bedroom apartment, that might be 80 CFM50 (38 L/s @50Pa) total, including leakage from the apartment door. In case you don’t have any point of reference, that’s insanely tight and not likely to be achieved without some help from a magic bullet.Still, you can see the difference in the measured pressure response of two apartments sealed to different levels. I’ll greatly simplify here, but the first apartment (see the graph directly below) was sealed very tight, while the second apartment was sealed only moderately well.last_img read more

Back in the Game Derrick Rose Drops 13 Points

Chicago Bulls point guard Derrick Rose is officially back. After missing 17 months of basketball because of knee surgery, the superstar player returned to the court Saturday night. In the Bulls’ preseason opener, he scored 13 points in 20 minutes in an 82-76 win over the Indiana Pacers.Rose looked good in his return and appeared to be enjoying the moment. He exhibited his speed and quickness thoughout his 20 mins of play. He also had a breakaway jam in the third quarter.The former MVP, Rose did turn the ball over four times, but showed no hesitation while attacking the rim. He went to the basket as if he never was injured, even taking it to Pacers center Roy Hibbert at times.Back in April of 2012, Rose injured his left knee by tearing his ACL in the first game of the Eastern Conference playoffs. read more

How to overcome job burnout and create a meaningful career

first_img Posted: May 6, 2019 KUSI Newsroom, KUSI Newsroom May 6, 2019 How to overcome job burnout and create a meaningful careercenter_img Categories: Good Morning San Diego, Local San Diego News FacebookTwitter 00:00 00:00 spaceplay / pause qunload | stop ffullscreenshift + ←→slower / faster ↑↓volume mmute ←→seek  . seek to previous 12… 6 seek to 10%, 20% … 60% XColor SettingsAaAaAaAaTextBackgroundOpacity SettingsTextOpaqueSemi-TransparentBackgroundSemi-TransparentOpaqueTransparentFont SettingsSize||TypeSerif MonospaceSerifSans Serif MonospaceSans SerifCasualCursiveSmallCapsResetSave SettingsSAN DIEGO (KUSI) – According to research, 2 in 3 employees are disengaged at work and only 7% of the Global Workforce claims to have a “great job.” but a Career and life transition coach is trying to help people overcome burnout in the workplace.Dan Mason said his mission is to help people discover their calling, and create a career that’s meaningful to their bank account and the world at large.Some of the topics Mason discussed on Good Morning San Diego were:-5 Questions to reinvent your life at any age.-How to Spring Clean Your Mind, reduce stress, and create your best life.-Three reasons your 2019 goals aren’t happening-How to free yourself from the corporate grind.-5 questions to help you discover your life’s calling.To check out Mason’s podcast, Life Amplified visit this link.For a free workbook click here. Updated: 11:32 AMlast_img read more

Easterseals helps veterans who are transitioning out of the military

first_imgEasterseals helps veterans who are transitioning out of the military Posted: August 12, 2019 August 12, 2019 00:00 00:00 spaceplay / pause qunload | stop ffullscreenshift + ←→slower / faster ↑↓volume mmute ←→seek  . seek to previous 12… 6 seek to 10%, 20% … 60% XColor SettingsAaAaAaAaTextBackgroundOpacity SettingsTextOpaqueSemi-TransparentBackgroundSemi-TransparentOpaqueTransparentFont SettingsSize||TypeSerif MonospaceSerifSans Serif MonospaceSans SerifCasualCursiveSmallCapsResetSave SettingsSAN DIEGO (KUSI) – The Easterseals Bob Hope Veterans Support Program provides employment services, as well as referrals to other resources, to help military personnel and veterans who are transitioning out of the military into a civilian job or starting their own small business.Director of Operations for the program John Funk and recently retired Chief Petty Officer Michelle Warnecke joined us at KUSI to discuss how Easterseals is helping men and women in the armed forces. KUSI Newsroom Categories: Local San Diego News FacebookTwitter KUSI Newsroom, last_img read more

Beyoncé JAYZ To Be Honored With GLAAD Vanguard Award

first_img Twitter Beyoncé & JAY-Z To Be Honored With GLAAD Vanguard Award Beyoncé & JAY-Z To Be Honored At GLAAD Awards beyonce-jay-z-be-honored-glaad-vanguard-award Facebook The GRAMMY-winning pair will receive the honor for their work as LGBTQ+ allies at the 30th Annual GLAAD Media Awards in Los Angeles on March 28Ana YglesiasGRAMMYs Mar 12, 2019 – 2:44 pm On March 11, GLAAD, the LGBTQ+ social justice non-profit organization, shared they will be honoring Beyoncé and JAY-Z for their work as allies of the gay community at their 30th Annual GLAAD Media Awards.center_img Email News The GRAMMY-winning pair will be presented with the organization’s Vanguard Award, which, as GLAAD explains, “is presented to allies who have made a significant difference in promoting acceptance of LGBTQ people. Beyoncé and JAY-Z are longtime allies and supporters of the LGBTQ community who use their global platforms to share messages that inspire and change the world for the better.”The annual awards ceremony celebrates “fair, accurate and inclusive representations of LGBTQ people and issues” in the media, recognizing LGBTQ+ changemakers—and their biggest allies—across music, film, TV, print media and more.”Beyoncé and JAY-Z are global icons and passionate defenders of human rights and acceptance for all people,” GLAAD President and CEO Sarah Kate Ellis said in a statement on their site.She continues: “When Beyoncé and JAY-Z speak, the world becomes inspired and when it comes to LGBTQ people, their voices of acceptance have been heard loud and clear. We could not be prouder to stand with them to send a message of love during the biggest LGBTQ event in the world and to honor their work to bend the arc of justice forward for LGBTQ people, people of color and marginalized communities everywhere.”GLAAD points to the couple embracing the queer community on their social-media platforms, in their music and videos, and more. They highlight Beyoncé choosing to include queer individuals and couples in her videos for “All Night” and “Formation,” the latter which won Best Music Video at the 59th GRAMMY Awards. They also underscore her advocacy for the community, as she continues to speak up against laws that would discriminate against the LGBTQ+ community and proudly supports marriage equality.The org explains that JAY-Z also publically supported the nationwide passage of marriage equality, and points to examples of celebrating LGBTQ+ leaders in his work. The music video for “Family Feud,” from his 4:44 album, opens with a quote from the late social justice writer James Baldwin, a queer black man, and features a cameo from transgender activist Janet Mock.”Smile,” also from 4:44, tells the story of Jay’s mother, Gloria Carter, who came out as a lesbian publically for the first time on the song. Both Jay and Carter were presented with GLAAD’s Special Recognition Award at the 2018 event for the touching, personal song and video.Jay and Bey are among the top GRAMMY winners of all time. Most recently, at the 61st GRAMMY Awards, they each earned another GRAMMY, for the collaborative album they released as The Carters. The powerful LP, Everything Is Love, won Best Urban Contemporary Album.GLAAD will also hold an awards ceremony in New York City on May 4, where another GRAMMY-winning musical/pop culture icon, Madonna, will be honored with the Advocate For Change Award. The nominees up for awards this year include GRAMMY winner Brandi Carlile, GRAMMY nominees Janelle Monáe, SOPHIE, plus Hayley Kiyoko, Christine and the Queens, Troye Sivan and BROCKHAMPTON.The L.A. event will be hosted by Ross Mathews and will feature special guests that include the cast of “Queer Eye” and GRAMMY winner Dan Reynolds of Imagine Dragons.VINCINT, Brandon Stansell, Linda Perry & More LGBTQ+ Artists Share Their Journeys To Self-AcceptanceRead morelast_img read more

ATT and CBS end blackout restore service

first_img 6 Comments AT&T CBS DirecTV Share your voice CBS and AT&T’s contract dispute affected subscribers of DirecTV Now and other services. Getty Images CBS channels will be restored Thursday for AT&T’s DirecTV, DirecTV Now and other pay-TV customers, after the two companies reached a deal and ended a nearly three-week blackout.CBS and AT&T said Thursday that their multi-year deal will cover the CBS-owned stations of its namesake broadcast channel, the CBS Sports Network and the Smithsonian Channel across DirecTV, DirecTV Now and U-verse, as well as the upcoming TV platforms that AT&T hopes to launch. (Editors’ note: CNET is owned by CBS.)AT&T aims to launch a Netflix-like streaming service called HBO Max in spring 2020, but that isn’t expected to carry live channels. The blackout hit AT&T pay-TV customers in 17 cities — New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Philadelphia, Dallas, San Francisco, Boston, Atlanta, Tampa, Seattle, Detroit, Minneapolis, Miami, Denver, Sacramento, Pittsburgh and Baltimore — as well as more than 100 CBS stations and affiliates on DirecTV Now. It stemmed from a dispute over the rates that AT&T pays CBS to carry the channels, after the companies’ 2012 agreement expired last month. In a brief joint statement, the companies didn’t disclose financial terms.”CBS and AT&T regret any inconvenience to their customers and viewers and thank them for their patience,” they said.  Tags TV and Movies TVs Mobilelast_img read more

Alien hunter spots another anomaly on Mars a monkey

first_imgET Data BasePopular Taiwanese alien hunter Scott C Waring has spotted many anomalies from NASA images over the past few years. Some of the anomalies spotted by Scott C Waring from NASA’s Mars images seemed so convincing, and it had made many people believe that aliens are living on the Red Planet. Now, Waring has released another NASA image from the Mars, that apparently shows a monkey sitting on the Red Planet’s surface.After spotting the monkey on Mars, Waring alleged that NASA may have never visited Mars, and these visuals might have been shot from Devon Island. As per Waring, if the picture was captured originally from Mars, then it could be proof of alien life on the Red Planet.”I found the original and the monkey is in it…this is 100% proof that the photo has not been tampered with. But now we have other problems. Is the rover on Devon Island in Canada? Are there monkeys on Devon island? Maybe, but not sure. Maybe NASA brought the monkey to experiment on it in the Martian environment. Maybe it could be a form of animal life on Mars. Who knows? The only way to find out, is for the public to go there,” wrote Waring on his website.A few days back, Waring has released an image that shows a bird flying in the Martian skies. The image shared by Waring went viral on social media platforms, and it compelled many people to believe that NASA is hiding some sinister secrets from the general public.Even though followers of Waring are pretty much impressed about the self-proclaimed researcher’s finding, skeptics reveal that the discoveries of Waring are classic cases of pareidolia. As per experts, pareidolia is a peculiar capability of the human brain to form recognizable images on unknown patterns.Earlier, after spotting fossil-like structures on images taken by NASA from Mars, Waring had urged United States president Donald Trump to appoint him as the head of NASA. Waring also claimed that all the secrets regarding alien life will be disclosed if he gets a chance to work as the head of the United States space agency.last_img read more

India flood toll hits 324

first_imgIndian passengers travel in a truck to a safer place as flood waters ravaged the National Highway 47 in Ernakulam district of Kochi, in the Indian state of Kerala, on 17 August 2018. Troop reinforcements stepped up desperate rescue attempts in India`s flood-stricken Kerala state on 17 August after more than 100 bodies were found in a day and a half, taking the crisis death toll to at least 164. Photo: AFPThe death toll from floods that have triggered landslides and sent torrents sweeping through villages in the Indian state of Kerala trebled Friday to 324, authorities said, amid warnings of worse weather to come.Hundreds of troops and local fishermen are staging desperate rescue attempts with helicopters and boats across the southern state, which draws international tourists to its tropical hills and beaches.Kerala has been battered by record monsoon rainfall this year and is “facing the worst floods in 100 years”, chief minister Pinarayi Vijayan said in a Twitter statement, adding that 324 lives had been lost so far.With thousands still trapped, power and communication lines down and fresh alerts of further torrential rain, authorities warned of more trouble ahead and further deaths to come.”We are deploying more boats and army to ramp up rescue operations,” senior state government official P.H. Kurian told AFPMore than 30 military helicopters and 320 boats are attempting rescues across Kerala.Authorities said thousands of people have been taken to safety so far but 6,000 more are still waiting for rescue.India residents stand on the shore as Periyar river flooded following monsoon rains at Aluva, in the Indian state of Kerala, on 16 August, 2018. Photo: AFPHelicopters have also been dropping emergency food and water supplies, while special trains carrying drinking water have been sent to Kerala.According to India’s weather bureau, since the beginning of June more than 321 centimetres (126 inches) of rain has fallen on the hilly central Kerala district of Idukki, which is now virtually cut off from the rest of the state.With no end in sight to the deluge, people all over the state of 33 million people have made panic-stricken appeals on social media for help, saying they cannot make contact with rescue services.”My family and neighbouring families are in trouble,” wrote Ajo Varghese, a resident of the coastal city of Alappuzha, in a Facebook post that quickly went viral.”No water and food. Not able to communicate from afternoon. Mobile phones are not reachable… Please help,” he added.- ‘Extremely grave’ -Other messages have been sent from people trapped inside temples and hospitals as well as their homes.The Kerala government has said it faces an “extremely grave” crisis and state chief minister Vijayan warned of a new wave of rainfall hitting the battered region over the weekend. Strong winds have also been predicted for Saturday and Sunday.Indian navy and rescue personnel evacuate local residents in a boat at Aluva, in the Indian state of Kerala, on 16 August, 2018. Photo: AFPThe gates of dozens of dams and reservoirs across the state have been opened as water levels reach danger levels, inundating many other villages.North and central Kerala have been worst-hit by the floods with the international airport in the main city of Kochi shut until at least 26 August.At least 220,000 people displaced from across the state are taking shelter in more than 1,500 relief camps.On top of tourist cancellations, Kerala’s valuable rubber industry has been badly hit by the floods.The government says 10,000 kilometres (6,000 miles) of Kerala roads have been destroyed or damaged, along with thousands of homes.News reports said electricity supplies to more than half the state have been cut. The state power company said that only one million people were affected, however.The home ministry announced meanwhile that 868 people have been reported dead in seven Indian states including Kerala since the start of the monsoon in June.last_img

Evidence of giant tsunami on Mars suggests an early ocean

first_img Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Scientists have been investigating the possibility of oceans on Mars for several years, but have so far been unable to prove they existed. Also, other researchers have found evidence for tsunamis on Mars but have not been able to find an associated oceanic impact crater to go along with it. In this new effort, the researchers believe they have found both.Prior research uncovered what has been described as thumbprint-looking terrain on the surface of Mars, which some researchers have ascribed to mud moving downhill from volcanoes or being pushed by glaciers. But they might have been created by a very large tsunami, the researchers suggest, and they have found a crater that they believe might have been the cause of it. Lomonosov crater, they suggest, situated in the northern plains, could very well be the scar that was left as a reminder of an asteroid striking in a northern ocean, generating waves hundreds of feet high, eventually spilling onto land and leaving enormous deposits behind. If such an asteroid did strike the ocean, the team continues, after diving through the water, it would have created a crater on the ocean floor. That crater would have been a void that would be suddenly filled with water from all sides, smashing together, creating a secondary tsunami following behind the first. As the first tsunami was receding over land, the second tsunami would have struck, and it was those two acting together that the researchers believe caused the characteristic thumbprint ridges to come about. They have used numerical modeling of wave propagation to back up their claims.The researchers contend that no other reasonable explanation exists for the creation of the ridges, which, they suggest, offers a degree of evidence of not just a tsunami but an ocean on Mars. Journal information: Journal of Geophysical Research Ancient tsunami evidence on Mars reveals life potential © 2017 Phys.orgcenter_img More information: Francois Costard et al. Modeling tsunami propagation and the emplacement of thumbprint terrain in an early Mars ocean, Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets (2017). DOI: 10.1002/2016JE005230AbstractThe identification of lobate debris deposits in Arabia Terra, along the proposed paleoshoreline of a former northern ocean, has renewed questions about the existence and stability of ocean-sized body of water in the early geologic history of Mars. The potential occurrence of impact-generated tsunamis in a northern ocean was investigated by comparing the geomorphologic characteristics of the Martian deposits with the predictions of well-validated terrestrial models (scaled to Mars) of tsunami wave height, propagation direction, runup elevation, and distance for three potential sea levels. Our modeling suggests several potential impact craters ~30–50 km in diameter as the source of the tsunami events. Within the complex topography of flat-floored valleys and plateaus along the dichotomy boundary, the interference of the multiple reflected and refracted waves that are observed in the simulation may explain the origin of the arcuate pattern that characterizes the thumbprint terrain. Credit: NASA Citation: Evidence of giant tsunami on Mars suggests an early ocean (2017, March 27) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2017-03-evidence-giant-tsunami-mars-early.html (Phys.org)—A team of researchers with members from France, Italy and the U.S. has found what they believe is evidence of a giant tsunami occurring on Mars approximately 3 billion years ago due to an asteroid plunging into an ocean. In their paper published in the Journal of Geophysical Research, the group outlines the evidence and why they believe a tsunami is the most likely factor that led to the creation of some unique planetary formations.last_img read more

When small is big

first_imgRanging from a diminutive 3.5 x 5 inches mixed media work by Laxma Goud to Paresh Maity’s oil on canvas in 20 x 16 inches, the show is indeed a treasure house of little gems. Executed in varied mediums like watercolour, oil, acrylic, collage, etching and mixed media, the show includes works by artists like A Ramachandran, Alok Uniyal, Ashok Hazra, Avijit Dutta, Chotu Lal, Devdatta Padekar, Dushyant Patel, Jayasri Burman, KS Kulkarni, Laxma Goud, Maite Deltiel, Maya Burman, Nayanaa Kanodia, Neelkant Choudhary, Neeraj Goswami, Paresh Maity, Roohan Segel, Satish Gujral and Sakti Burman. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Shobha Bhatia, Director, Gallerie Ganesha said: “In the field of science, the shift has been from macro to micro. Scientists are constantly making new discoveries in the realm of quantum physics which change entire perspectives and question founded theories. In the field of art also, artists are constantly trying to innovate and challenge the ground rules. Cut to Size is an endeavour to experiment with small format works, which are in a sense part of our ancient tradition as seen in the Mughal, Rajput and Pahari schools, and bring it centre-stage with a new contemporary twist.” Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixWhile many of the artists in the show are mostly known for their large-scale works which gives them freedom of space, they admit that creating small format work is indeed a challenge. Neelkant Choudhary, who is known for giving Madhubani a contemporary flavor said, “It is always a challenge to try and work on a ‘miniature’ format, as effectively, without losing out on the finer nuances of art. A smaller format requires more focused and an effectively worked on miniature/ small format painting can be like a little gem, with all its facets intact.”  There is yet another reason why artists are attracted to the small format. “Smaller format works are the need of the hour,” argues artist Alok Uniyal whose work has always been inspired by Indian miniature art. He added, “In today’s world, where everything is becoming small —homes, relationships, recall value — small format works, doesn’t it?” Uniyal, on a more serious note, shares that he was exposed to the charm of small format works during his academic years and finds no difficulty in imparting his signature style of elongated eyes, bold strokes and a vivid colour palette to his small format works even now. He said, “However, working in small format is always a risk, and a challenge.” He added, his smallest work is a 6 by 8 inches canvas. Artist Devdatta Padekar said, “One needs a lot of discipline and focus to create a work in the small format. I make smaller works as a regular practice and the intensity, the detailing and the expression in each is as vivid as it would be in a large work.”Artist Dushyant Patel, who recalls his smallest work being a 4 x 7 inches one, imparts yet another reason to why viewers are attracted to the small format. “Smaller works are more affordable. And if the image one creates suits that particular size, anyone would want to have such a work on their walls,” he said.When: September 1 to 22Where: Gallerie Ganesha, E-557, Greater Kailash IITimings:  11 am to 7 pmlast_img read more